2. 1K1HF3ZB0EA17PUH
  6. 2HDMHLGLMCCK4MN9 (new redeem code) 

  • 73H8Y3MRB6YR04GC
  • XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markupa Language?
  • XHTML is aimed to replace HTML
  • XHTML is almost identical to HTML 4.01
  • XHTML is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a markup
  • language designed for describing data
  • XHTML is HTML redefined as an XML application
  • XHTML is a "bridge" between HTML and XML

What is XHTML?

  • XHTML stands for Extensible HyperText Markup Language
  • XHTML is the next generation of HTML
  • XHTML is aimed to replace HTML
  • XHTML is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML

XHTML is a reformulation of HTML into a language that conforms to the XML 1.0 Recommendation. XHTML Family document types are all XML-based, and ultimately are designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents

HTML5 - Serializations + Model

Two serializations: HTML5 vs. XHTML5

<!DOCTYPE html>
<meta charset=utf-8>
<title>My example</title>
<body>... </body> 



<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<meta charset="utf-8"/>
<title>My example</title>
<body>... </body></html>


  • Major markup language used to display web pages on the Internet
  • Older version
  • Works well in older browsers
  • Less detailed
  • Supports vector graphics using other technologies or plugins
  • Difficult to include and handle multimedia
  • Offline storage support is not good
  • Web sockets are not available. 


  • Major revision of HTML for describing the content and appearance of web pages
  • New version
  • Works well in new browsers; also supports older browsers
  • More detailed
  • Vector graphics are an integral part
  • Easy to include and handle multimedia
  • Offline storage support is good
  • Web sockets are available and provide full duplex communication
  • Supports Geolocation

 What is XHTML?

  • XHTML stands for EXtensible HyperText Markup Language
  • XHTML is a stricter, more XML-based version of HTML
  • XHTML is HTML defined as an XML application
  • XHTML is supported by all major browsers


XML is a markup language where all documents must be marked up correctly (be "well-formed"). XHTML was developed to make HTML more extensible and flexible to work with other data formats (such as XML). In addition, browsers ignore errors in HTML pages, and try to display the website even if it has some errors in the markup. So XHTML comes with a much stricter error handling.

The Most Important Differences from HTML

  • <!DOCTYPE> is mandatory
  • The xmlns attribute in <html> is mandatory
  • <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body> are mandatory
  • Elements must always be properly nested
  • Elements must always be closed
  • Elements must always be in lowercase
  • Attribute names must always be in lowercase
  • Attribute values must always be quoted
  • Attribute minimization is forbidden

XHTML - <!DOCTYPE ....> Is Mandatory

An XHTML document must have an XHTML <!DOCTYPE> declaration. The <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body> elements must also be present, and the xmlns attribute in <html> must specify the xml namespace for the document.

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <title>Title of document</title>
  some content here...

Difference between HTML and XML & HTML

  • It has a predefined Set of rules on tags
  • It is used to describe how the data will be displayed on the web page.
  • 3 It Can be Seen directly on the Web Browser.
  • Its Extension is html XML Document structure


4 It has no predefined tags User has to define his own tags. It is used to store and transport data. Ⓒ It Can be seen only if a proper style Sheet is attached with it. Its Extension is XML. According it can to use there is no tags. than me XML is better because user defined tags tags and use for learning predefined ( We can't. HTML. say вот it is easier. are comparable.


<title>Course Roster</title>
<h1>Course Roster</h1>
<h2>XML Programming</h2> <h3>Department: WiTEL</h3>
<table border=2>
<td>Ron Jones<br> Uma Abingdon<br> Lindsay Garmon


<?xml version="1.0"?>
<name>Java Programming</name>
<department WITEL</department>
<name>Paul Thompson</name>
<name>Ron Jones</name>
</student> <student>
<name>Uma Abingdon</name>
<name>Lindsay Garmon</name>


  • XHTML is a combination of HTML and XML
  • XML is a markup language where everything has to be marked up correctly, which results in "well-formed documents
  • XHTML consists of all the elements in HTML 4.01 combined with the syntax of XML
  • We have reached a point where many pages on the www.contain "bad" HTML
  • XHTML pages can be read by all XML enabled devices

Differences Between XHTML and HTML

  • Documents must be valid
  • XHTML namespace must be declared in <html> element
  • <head> and <body> elements cannot be omitted
  • <title> element must be the first element in the <head>
  • End tags are required for non-empty clauses
  • Empty elements must consist of a start-tag and end-tag
  • pair or an empty element (e.g. <br/>) Element and attribute names must be in lowercase
  • Attribute values must always be quoted
  • Attribute names cannot be used without a value


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